Journal of Umm Al-Qura University for Social Sciences (JUQUSS) is owned and published by Umm Al-Qura University. Our perspective is that all research is for the benefit of society, and research is the output of investment by the community. JUQUSS is an open-access journal. All the articles published in this journal are free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute. Umm Al-Qura University supports the cost of publishing in JUQUSS. Therefore, authors can publish in this journal without paying the article processing charges (APC). This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the precept that making research voluntarily available to the people helps a more significant global knowledge exchange.
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