Analytical HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography)
Waters Alliance HPLC (Waters Corp, Milford, MA, USA) equipped waters e2995 separation module and waters 2998 PDA and Empower 2 software. Analytical HPLC used in analytical chemistry to identify, and quantify each component in a mixture of natural and synthetic drugs and quality control of marketed drugs.
Preparative, semi preparative analytical HPLC
Waters Alliance HPLC (Waters Corp, Milford, MA, USA) equipped waters RID used in isolation and purification of natural products from medicinal plants rather than analytical purposes.
Bruker NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance); Bruker AVANCE II (AVII) 500 MHz.
It is non-destructive analyzer used for identification and quality control of organic compounds (natural or synthetic). It has a z-gradinet amplifier and equipped with 5mm BB observe ATM probe head with z-gradient coil. It runs TOPSPIN 2.1 software on a Windows XP workstation. This instrument is most suitable for structure determination of small organic molecules.
Magnet: Superconducting 500 MHz, Oxford Instruments
Console: Avance II 500, two channels, BOSS II (34 magnetic field homogenity corrections), BSMS 2, amplifiers BLAXH 300/100, BLAXH 300 and BLAX 500
Temperature unit: B-VT 3200, BCU 05
Solid state accessory: MAS II
Probeheads: triple resonance broad-band probe with ATM (5 mm PATBO BB-1H/19F/D Z-GRD), triple resonance broad-band probe (5 mm TBO BB-1H/19F/D Z-GRD), solid-state MAS probe (3.2 mm MAS BB/1H)
Workstation: Windows XP, NMR software Topspin 2.1 pl 8
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 ultra interfaced with Quadrupole mass spectroscopy fitted with Rtx-5MS column (30m × 0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25µm, RESTEK, USA). Supplied with 3 data bases (PESTEI-3; Wiley9, 2010; NIST, 2011). Used to identify, and quantify and analysis of volatile constituents especially of natural origin.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM):
Is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with electrons in the sample, producing various signals that can be detected and that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve a high resolution power.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry or DSC:
Is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment. Generally, the temperature program for a DSC analysis is designed such that the sample holder temperature increases linearly as a function of time. The reference sample should have a well-defined heat capacity over the range of temperatures to be scanned. It is used to determine the melting and decomposition temperatures of samples.
X ray Diffractiometer:
A diffractometer is a measuring instrument for analyzing the structure of a material from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (such as X-rays or neutrons) interacts with it.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR):
Is a technique which is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or Raman scattering of a solid, liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects spectral data in a wide spectral range. This confers a significant advantage over a dispersive spectrometer which measures intensity over a narrow range of wavelengths at a time. It is used to detect the crystallinity of substances (wether the substance is crystalline or amorphous). It is used to detect chemical or physical change which may occur in tested samples.
Works by freezing the material and then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water in the material to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. Freeze-dryer process is also known as lyophilisation, lyophilization, or cryodesiccation, is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material or make the material more convenient for transport.
Spray Dryer Machine:
Works by producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas. This is the preferred method of drying of many thermally-sensitive materials such as foods and pharmaceuticals. A consistent particle size distribution is a reason for spray drying some industrial products such as catalysts. Air is the heated drying medium; however, if the liquid is a flammable solvent such as ethanol or the product is oxygen-sensitive then nitrogen is used. It is used also to obtain nanoparticles.
Tablet Press Machine:
Is a mechanical device that compresses powder into tablets of uniform size and weight. A press can be used to manufacture tablets of a wide variety of materials, including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs such as MDMA, cleaning products, and cosmetics. To form a tablet, the granulated material must be metered into a cavity formed by two punches and a die, and then the punches must be pressed together with great force to fuse the material together.
Tablet hardness testing:
Is a laboratory technique used by the pharmaceutical industry to test the breaking point and structural integrity of a tablet "under conditions of storage, transportation, and handling before usage.
Specially designed for testing the disintegration time threshold for solid dosage medication, as required by USP. It is easy to set up and operate with advanced features. This machine is specially used to determine the durability of tablets from the time of production to the time use, as it is important to test abrasion and impact hardness of the tablets
Dissolution Tester Apparatus:
The apparatus is designed for simultaneously carrying out six dissolution tests of test tablets/ capsules/ granules and is suitable for quality control and research laboratories in pharmaceuticals Industries. The apparatus is assembled on a mild steel platform on which a constant temperature water bath made of acrylic is kept on the top of platform.
Friability Test Apparatus:
This machine is specially to determine the durability of tablets from the time of production to the time use, as it is important to test abrasion and impact hardness of the tablets. The apparatus consist of transparent acrylic drums. The drums are equipped with a plastic blade which carries the tablets along with it up to predetermined height while the drums are rotating and tablets are allowed to slide and let them slide down. The tablets are weighted before and after the rubbing in the drum have taken place. The difference in weight indicates the rate of abrasion.
Pharmaceutical Ball Milling Machine:
This machine is made of mild steel or stainless steel as on requirement. The drum of the ball mill is in a round cylindrical shape so that balls in side work to its best. There is several small weighted iron or steel balls in it, which grinds or mix the product. The drum of the ball mill rotates in a forward direction and so balls go up and down for perfect grinding or mixing