قائمة الروابط

 

 

 

Department of Clinical Pharmacy

Pharmacoeconomics 

Module Guide

PHCP 1804471

 

 

 

Umm Al – Qura University

Faculty of Pharmacy

 

 

 

Developed by the Clinical Pharmacy Department

 

 

 

 

 

Module Organizer:

Dr. Layla Borham

Email :  borhaml@hotmail.com

Tel: 02-5270000                                   Extension: 4281   

 

Course Information:

Course Title:      PHARMACOECONOMICS 

Course Number:   PHCP 1804471

Credit Units:         1 A.H

Hours Per Week:   1 = 1 hours/week

Teaching Methods:  Lectures, Data show, Seminars, Clinical cases and Handouts.

Prerequisites:  This course is designed for Fourth Year Pharmacy students (Pharm. D.). It will be assumed that students have an adequate background in principles of pharmacology, and have some general mathematic  knowledge. 

 

Lecture time:        Males:  Monday 01-02 pm,    

                               Females: Sunday  01-02  pm        

 

 

Course Coordinators:

 

  • Female :

Prof. Dr. Layla Borham. Email: borhaml@hotmail.com.Tel: 02-5270000. Extension:  4281.

 

  • Males:       

   Dr. Abdul Haseeb Email:abdulhaseeb_knph@hotmail.com / clinicalpharmacy@live.co.uk

    Tel: 02-5270000 Extension: 4267      

 

 

 

Course evaluation:

 

Evaluation Methods: (100 %)

 

  • Periodic Exams: 30 %  
  • Assignments and Seminars: 20 %   
  • Final Written exam: 50 % 

Schedule of Assessment Tasks for Students During the Semester

Assessment task

Week due

% of Final Assessment

Assignment 1

End of week 2

2.5

Periodic 1 + Seminar 1

End of week 4

10 + 3

Assignment 2

End of week 5

2.5

Periodic 2 + Seminar 2

End of week 9

10 + 3

Assignment 3

End of week 10

2.5

Assignment 4

End of week 12

2.5

Periodic 3 + Seminar 3

End of week 14

10 + 4

Seminars

Seminar 1 + Seminar 2 + Seminar 3

3 + 3 + 4 = 10

Final written exam

End of semester

50

 

 

 

4- The final grade will be assigned according to the following distribution:

 

A+: ³ 95%,              A ³ 90 %,                 B+: ³ 85%,                       B: ³ 80 %,

C+: ³ 75%,              C: ³ 70 %                -D+: ³ 65%,                      D: ³ 60 %        -F < 60 %

 

5- The format of the examinations will typically include multiple-choice questions with one best answer, short essay questions, and clinical cases.

 

 

TEXTBOOKS: 

 

1. Required Text(s):

 Required Textbook:

2. Essential References

1. Clinical Pharmacy and therapeutics

Walker Roger, Edwards C.R.W.:
3 Rev Ed

Elsevier Health Sciences (United Kingdom), 2002
Paperback, 960 pages
Size: 246x189 mm
ISBN: 9780443071379
ISBN-10: 0443071373

 

2. Pharmacotherapy:

 

A Pathophysiologic Approach (6th Ed.) And Pharmacotherapy Casebook A Patient Focused Approach (6th Ed.)

Authors: Joseph T. Dipiro, L. Michael Posey, Robert L. Talbert, Gary C. Yee, Gary R. Matzke, Barbara G. Wells

Publication Date: Latest Edition
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
ISBN-10: 0071447911
ISBN-13: 9780071447911

 

 

3.The clinical Use of Drugs; Marry Anne, Coda Kimble; Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins,

 

 

3- Recommended Books and Reference Material (Journals, Reports, etc)

  1. Heaney, L.G., McAllister, MacMahon, J. (1999) " Cost minimization analysi of provision of  oxygen at home: are the drug tariff guidelines cost effective? " British Medical Journal, 19, pp. 19-23
  2. Jones, J., Wilson, A., Parker, H. (1999) "Economic evaluation of hospital at home versus hospital care: cost minimization analysis of data from randomized control trial" , British Medical Journal, 319, pp. 1547-1550.
  3. Weber, M.P. (1998) " A cost effectiveness analysis of appetite suppressant for obesity treatment in managed care organization" , Managed Care Pharmacy Journal, 4, pp.293-300.
  4. Petitta, A., Ward, R.E., Anandan, J.V. (1997) "The cost effectiveness impact of a preferred agent HMG-COA reductase inhibitor policy in a managed care population", Managed Care Pharmacy Journal, 3, pp. 584-553
  5. James, M., Turner, D.A., Broadbent, D.M., (2000) "Cost effectiveness analysis of screening for sight threatening diabetic eye disease" , British Medical Journal, 320, pp.1627-1631.
  6. Ades, A.E., Schulper, M.J.,Gibb, D.M. (1999) "Cost effective analysis of antenatal HIV screening in United Kingdom" ,  British Medical Journal, 319, pp.1230 – 1234.
  7. Delaney, B.C., Wilson, S., Roalfe, A. et al. (2000) " Cost effectiveness of initial endoscopy for dyspepsia in patients over age 50 years: a randomized controlled trial in primary care" , Lancet, 356, pp.1965-1969.
  8. Lisa, A. Prosser, M.S., Aaron, A. et al.(2000) " Cost effectiveness of cholesterol lowering therapies according to selected patient characteristics" , Ann Int Med, 132, PP.  769-779
  9. Stolk, E.A., Busschbach, J.J. V., Caffa. M. (2000) " Cost utility analysis of sildenafil compared with pepaverine-phentolamine injections" British Medical Journal, 320, pp. 1529-1533.
  10. Forbes, R.B., Lees, A., Waugh, N. (1999) "Population based cost utility studyof interferon beta-1b in secondary progressive multiple sclerosi" , British Medical Journal, 319, pp. 1529-1533.
  11. Wooton, R., Bloomer, S.E., Corbett, R. (2000) " Multicentre randomized control trial comparing real time teledermatology with conventional outpatient dermatological care: societal cost benefit analysis" , British Medical Journal, 320, pp. 1252- 1256.

4-.Electronic Materials, Web Sites etc

www.therapeutics-southampton.co.uk

www.medscape.com

www.a-s-t.org

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed

www.amcp.org/amcp.ark

www.nhs.uk/nationalplan

www.grad.cmu.ac

www.cps.ca

www.manhattan-institute.org

www.jr2.ox.ac.uk

www.amazon.com

5- Other learning material such as computer-based programs/CD, professional standards/regulations:

Students are required to use Microsoft word and PowerPoint,  also they are encouraged to use some mind map computer softwares.

 

Course Objective:

By the end of the course student will be able to:

1)      Recite the classic definition of pharmacoeconomics and define pharmacoeconomic research.

 

2)      List four primary perspectives that a pharmacoeconomic analysis can be conducted from, and describe how they differ.

 

3)      Discern between different medical cost categories that can be identified, measured, and compared in a pharmacoeconomic analysis.

 

4)      Categorize the outcomes (consequences) of medical care into three basic areas, popular to medical decision making.

 

5)      Describe the components of a “full” economic evaluation.

 

6)      Compare and contrast four economic evaluation methods commonly applied to pharmacy practice in today’s healthcare settings.

 

7)      Discuss how cost-benefit analysis can be used to quantify the value of clinical pharmacy services.

 

8)      Define cost-effectiveness analysis and discuss the appropriate application of this method for drug therapy evaluations.

 

9)      Construct an argument for a situation where an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be preferred over an average cost-effectiveness ratio.

 

10)  List two primary applications of pharmacoeconomic principles and methods to “real world” pharmacy practice environments.

 

11)  Compare and contrast common strategies for incorporating pharmacoeconomics into daily pharmacy practice.

 

12)  List the advantages and disadvantages of using the literature as a pharmacoeconomic application strategy.

 

13)  State and apply 11 basic criteria important for evaluating the quality of a published pharmacoeconomic or outcomes research study from a pharmacy perspective.

 

14)  Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using modeling to inform local decision making.

 

15)  Describe and apply the basic components for conducting a rigorous and sound local pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

Teaching materials and resources

Audiovisual aids including video tapes, slides, transparencies and films will be used frequently during lectures and discussions to facilitate learning.

a. Lectures

This form of instruction is used to deliver factual knowledge, explain and clarify difficult points, pose pertinent questions and directs students to the more salient points.

 

Roles and Responsibilities of the Students and Lecturers

Students are expected to;

1.  Use all available resources to accomplish the learning objectives in each lecture and case-based discussion and exercise session, including:

  1. Attending all lecture and case-based discussion sessions.
  2. Reading textbook assignments.
  3. Participating in lecture and case sessions by answering questions posed in class and asking questions when information is unclear or more information is needed.

2.  Provide constructive feedback regarding the course on evaluation forms that will be provided at the end of the semester.

3.  Adhere to the faculty academic and professional rules.

Lecturer is expected to:

  1. Provide clear and informative lecture notes with learning objectives that focus on important points,
  2. Give clear, informative, and stimulating 50-minute lectures with PowerPoint or other visual aids to enhance the learning experience for students.
  3. Answer questions either in or outside class or via e-mail or telephone.
  4. Compose thoughtful and fair exam questions that assess student learning and application of the course content.
  5. Providing answers and explanations to student inquiries regarding any aspect of the course.
  6. Providing advice and assistance to students for improving their learning strategies and performance in the course.
  7. Reviewing and implementing appropriate changes in the course based on student feedback and evaluations.

Course content:

Major Topics of the course:

  1. Principles of Pharmacoeconomics
  2. Methods of Pharmacoeconomics
  3. Applications of Pharmacoeconomics

Detailed Contents:

Detailed Contents:

First Semester

Week No

Topic

Assignment &

Seminars

Notes

 

1           A. Principles of Pharmacoeconomic

         - Definitions of :

            - Clinical Pharmacy

               - Cost

               - Perspectives

               - Consequences

               -  Outcome Research

          - Perspectives

  -Patient Perspective

                          -Provider Perspective

  -Payer Perspective

  -Societal Perspective

 

___________________________________________________________________

2              - Costs  

-          Direct Medical Cost

-          Direct Non – Medical Cost

-          Indirect Non- Medical Costs

-          Intangible Costs

-          Opportunity Costs

-          Incremental Costs

  __________________________________________________________________

 

First Semester

Week No

Topic

Assignment

& Seminars

Notes

 

3         - Consequences                                                          

              -Economic Consequences

              -Clinical Consequences

              -Humanistic Consequences

              -Positive Versus Negative Consequences                        Assignment 1        

              -Intermediate and final Consequences                             Perspective (2.5 Marks) 

_________________________________________________________________

  4     Tutorial  & Group Discussions: ( 2 Hs)                                             Periodic 1(10 Marks)

               - Definitions of :                                                                                Seminar 1( 3 Marks) 

                    - Clinical Pharmacy

                    - Pharmacoeconomics

                    - Costs

                    - Perspective

                    - Consequences                                                      

     - Variuos types of Costs

     -  Perspectives

     -  Consequencess

___________________________________________________________________

 4        Methods  of Pharmacoeconomics

             -Full Economic Evaluation Methods

                      -Partial Economic Evaluation Methods

          -Cost of  Illness Evaluation

          -Cost Minimization Analysis

___________________________________________________________________

6          -Economic Evaluation Methods                            

                   -Cost Benefit Analysis                                            

                       - Cost Effective  Analysis

                       - Cost Consequence Analysis

 _____________________________________________________________________________                   

7              - Economic Evaluation Methods                     Assignment  2

                        -Cost Utility Analysis                                                   (2.5 Marks)

                        -Humanistic Evaluation Methods  

                        -Summary of Pharmacoeconomics Methodologies

________________________________________________________________

 

 

First Semester

Week No

Topic

Assignment

& Seminars

Notes

 

 

8         Tutorial  & Group Discussions: ( 2 Hs)                              Periodic 2 (10 Marks)

                                                                                                                          Seminar 2 (3 Marks)

        

             Explanation of economic evaluation method with  research articles presentation.

             - Methods Of Pharmacoeconomics

                - Partial & Full Economic evaluations

                - Cost of Illness Evaluation

                - Cost utility Analysis

                - Cost Effectiveness Evaluation

                - Cost Minimization Analysis

                - Cost Benefit Evaluation

9       Applications of Pharmacoeconomics

             -Drug Therapy Evaluation

                -Clinical Pharmacy Service Evaluation

                -Clinical decisions

                -Formulary management

                -Drug use policy/guidelines

                -Disease management

                -Resource allocation

10        D. Strategies to incorporate Pharmacoeconomics   into        `  ````````````Pharmacotherapy

 

                 -Use the Pharmacoeconomics Literature     

 

-Study Objective                                                     Assignment 3   

-Study Perspective                                                   (2.5 Marks)                                                                                             

-Pharmacoeconomics Method

-Study Design

                                 -Choice of Interventions

                                 -Costs and consequences

                                 -Discounting

                                 -Study Result

                                 -Sensitivity Analysis

                                 -Study Conclusions

                              -Sponsorship

 

 

First Semester

Week No

Topic

Assignment

& Seminars

Notes

 

 11   How to Conduct a Pharmacoeconomics Evaluation

 

         Use of stepwise approach for evaluation which include to:

 

          -Define the pharmacoeconomic problem

          -Assemble a cross-functional study team

          -Define the appropriate  study perspective

          -Identify treatment alternatives  and outcomes

          -Identify the appropriate  pharmacoeconomic method to employ

          -Place a monetary value on treatment alternatives and outcomes

          -Identify resources to conduct study in an efficient manner…………

 

 

12    How to Conduct a Pharmacoeconomics Evaluation                       Assignment 4 

 

         -Identify probabilities that  outcomes may occur in the study              (2.5 Marks)

            population employ decision analysis                                                     

         -Discount costs or perform a sensitivity or incremental cost analysis     

         -Present study results

         -Develop a policy or an intervention

         -Implement policy and educate professionals

         -Followup documentation

 

13       - Efficiency

           -Numbers needed to treat approach (NNT)

 

 14      -Tutorial  & Group Discussions: (1H)                          Periodic 2 (10 Marks)

                                                                                                                          Seminar 2 (3 Marks)

                - Group presentation about :

-          Application of Pharmacoeconomic methods

-          Stepwise approach conducting Pharmacoeconomics evaluation

-          Efficiency

-          Numbers needed to treat approach

______________________________________________________________________________

 15                                                             Revision

16,17                                    End First Term Theory Exam